Here are a few suggestions to get you started:
Know your values
Take time to think about which ethical approaches matter most to you. There are so many different ethical and sustainability issues that it may be hard to find one option that fits everything. Being clear what matters most to you, will help you navigate your way through complexities such as a fossil fuel company that also has a renewable energy project.
Work out where you are already investing
Your current investments, including your pension, may have ethical elements already. You need to know what you’re happy with and what you want to change. You can also consider whether you want all your investments to be based on ethical investing, or just a proportion.
To make changes, you may need to just change the fund, or possibly for a more comprehensive approach, look to a new investment management provider.
- How is ESG performance worked out?
- How to choose an ethical investment fund
- How can I match my values to the right investment?
- What is ESG investing?
- Are ESG funds higher risk?
- Our bespoke planning process
The information used to define whether a business is strong on ESG is often subjective. There are multiple frameworks that people use, with different methods of calculation, so it’s impossible to get totally accurate answers – so you should aim for an approximation.
The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), states that ESG assertions made by companies must be ‘reasonable and substantiated’. The investment research firm, Morgan Stanley Capital International provides a grading system ranking businesses from AAA to CCC. They collate information from published corporate documents, plus academic, government and a range of other databases.
As well as the usual things to consider when choosing a fund, for example, levels of risk, costs etc, when you want to invest ethically there are a few additional factors to consider. It’s important to ensure that investment companies are genuinely upholding ethical standards. If you look at the fund manager’s website you will often find the answers you need. You need to research the following points and if you can’t find the answers you want, don’t hesitate to ask the investment companies directly. If they are responsive and open that can say a lot about their ethical approach and their attitude to investors generally.
Find out about the following
- Ethical Investment Policies: Carefully examine the investment company's ethical investment policies. Look for clear guidelines that outline the specific environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors they consider when selecting stocks. A well-defined, transparent policy should cover areas such as: carbon emissions, working standards, diversity, animal welfare and corporate governance.
- Their philosophy and screening process: the corporate reporting (such as website, prospectus, annual report) should demonstrate how comprehensively the fund managers are embracing socially responsible investing principles. Look out for impact assessments which can be an indication that the fund is genuinely committed and it is a key element. Be wary of funds that seem to present ESG as a sort of ‘nice box to tick’. Another good sign is if they have robust selection criteria for the stocks they include in their portfolios.
- Research and data: ideally, you’d want a fund that has its ESG research conducted in-house as that is an indication of its level of commitment to ethical investing. Relying on third-party ESG research gives less reason to be impressed. Ratings, such as those from MSCI, can be a useful guide, however there are a lot of different views as to how these should be assessed and so they may not be that significant in reality.
- Compare the investment company's ethical policies and practices with their peers. Look for benchmarking reports that evaluate different investment companies' ethical performance and compare them across the industry. This analysis can help identify companies that excel in ethical investing and have a proven track record.
- Voting behaviour and engagement: fund managers should vote at the annual meetings held by the companies they invest in. Proxy voting allows shareholders to exercise their rights and influence corporate decision-making. If they have voted against management at any time, this shows they are willing to engage and have a proactive commitment to ethical investing. You should be able to find this information from their website where they will record how they have engaged with investee companies.
- Accreditation and Certifications: Are they signatories to the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) and the UK Stewardship Code 2020 which is a code that establishes a benchmark for sustainable investment? Additionally, consider certifications specific to industries, such as Fair Trade certifications for companies involved in agriculture or manufacturing.
- Transparency: Look for investment companies that provide regular and comprehensive reports on their portfolio holdings and their performance against ethical criteria. Check to see whether you can see the whole of a fund’s portfolio and that listings are not limited, for example, to the top 10 holdings. You need to be able to see and check all the underlying companies to be knowledgeable about how socially responsible the investments are.
To effectively align investments with your values, you need to ethical investment companies that offer the following:
- robust screening and selection process: they should have a rigorous screening process to identify stocks that meet specific ethical criteria. This process involves assessing environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors and excluding companies involved in industries or practices that conflict with the investor's values. Clear guidelines should be in place to ensure transparency and consistency in stock selection.
- customisation and flexibility: they should offer customisation options to accommodate individual investors' values. This may include providing different investment themes or portfolios aligned with specific causes, such as climate change, gender equality, or human rights.
Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) investing has become an increasingly important focus for many of our clients.
There has been a substantial rise in the popularity of sustainable and ethical investments in recent years, driven by an increasing desire for investors to know where and how their money is being invested.
However, while these products have now become an established part of the mainstream investment landscape, many people remain confused about the terminology associated with this type of investing and are often unsure as to how to get started.
ESG investing involves considering environmental, social and governance factors alongside financial considerations when assessing investment opportunities. When investment managers are deciding which companies to invest in, they may seek out and include companies based on their ESG characteristics.
Environmental factors refer to how companies are performing in their stewardship of the environment, for example:
- Carbon footprint
- Energy consumption
- Greenhouse gas emissions
Social factors consider how companies manage relationships with employees, suppliers, customers, and the areas where they operate, for example:
- Human rights and social justice
- Working conditions and employee relations
- Health and safety standards
Governance factors focus on company leadership, for example:
- Board diversity, structure and pay
- Avoidance of bribery and corruption
- Management & culture
ESG investing offers the potential to invest in ways that reflect the values that are important to you through using investment solutions that aim to take related ESG characteristics into account.
However, with investment managers and funds using varying terms such as Ethical, Sustainable, Socially Responsible, Impact Investing or simply Green, it can be difficult for clients to really understand what these labels truly mean and how they translate into an investment strategy that matches their personal views and reflects the values that are most important to them.
One of the most well-known terms is Ethical Investing. This involves actively avoiding those types of firms or industry sectors which are considered to have a negative impact on the environment or society. This approach is also known as ‘negative screening’ as it involves filtering out specific types of investment based on a series of ethical or moral judgements.
For instance, negative screening may exclude all gas and oil companies regardless of whether a firm operating in the sector generates any form of green energy. Other types of excluded ‘sin stocks’ typically include the likes of alcohol companies, tobacco producers, weapons manufacturers, the gambling industry and firms involved in animal testing.
Sustainable Investing uses ESG principles to actively select those companies that have a positive impact on the world, often in line with the United Nations Global Goals for Sustainable Development. This approach is therefore less restrictive than ethical investing as it allows for the fact that organisations are typically not either all good or all bad.
For example, under a sustainable investment strategy, a fund manager would be allowed to invest in an oil company that was developing clean, renewable energy sources.
Socially Responsible Investing (SRI)
SRI is one of the oldest ethical investment strategies, which involves focusing on a range of socially conscious themes such as employment rights, awareness of LGBTQ factors, social justice and corporate ethics.
This involves using an investment strategy which targets those companies that have a positive social and/or environmental impact whilst demonstrating high levels of accountability and governance.
Green Investing involves a strategy of selecting companies considered to be positive for the environment, such as those offering alternative sources of energy or those with a proven track record in reducing their environmental impact.
There was often a perception in the early days of ESG investing that investors were putting principles before profit, with ethical or green investments generally considered to be significantly riskier than their traditional counterparts. Nowadays, however, with more and more companies adopting ESG principles within their corporate and social governance policies, there is a much wider choice of stocks available to ethical and sustainable investors, and so this style of investing can provide a compelling investment opportunity capable of generating long-term stable and sustainable returns.
Building a strategy around your personal core beliefs aimed at delivering financial success is central to our planning process.
One of the challenges with ESG investing is that it’s highly subjective; whilst you may want to prioritise the social impact companies can have, others may be more concerned about the environmental effects. It’s worth spending some time thinking about what is most important to you.
At Tees, as your independent financial adviser, we will work with you and take the time to truly understand your values including any ‘red lines’ you may have and where you may be willing to compromise. We take account of your financial aspirations and plan for how these can be delivered via an ESG investment strategy, that is tailored to you, so that you can feel comfortable with the investment decisions you are making.
We will also seek to understand the balance between your views and overall financial performance, as well as what impact you want your investment to have - i.e: to ‘do no harm’, or to ‘do good’.
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'Do no harm’ or ‘do good’
Seeking to invest in companies that promote ESG values that are important to you is referred to as positive screening, as you look to ‘do good’. This may mean actively looking for opportunities in certain sectors or even dedicating a portion of your portfolio to this area.
Let’s say climate change and fossil fuel use are something you want to reflect in your investments. A negative, or ‘do no harm’ screening process may mean cutting out firms that are involved in the fossil fuel industry. In contrast, a positive ‘do good’ screening method could mean diverting a portion of your portfolio towards companies that are focused on renewable energy.
When looking to build an ESG investment strategy, it’s important to bear in mind that there often needs to be compromise, rather than trying to find a portfolio which exactly matches a particular set of ethical values. There is no such thing as 100% good or bad.
Ongoing monitoring of investment managers and performance
We continually monitor the investment managers that we recommend and hold them to account to ensure that their investment strategies remain in line with the policies and beliefs for which their investments were selected on your behalf.
Monitoring and engaging with investment managers encourages good behaviour and is the best way to ensure they are practising what they are preaching.
We will also look to benchmark an investment manager’s performance comparative to their peers as well as assess performance against mainstream funds. There may be times when an ESG portfolio underperforms compared to traditional investments, as certain stocks (and indeed, whole sectors) can move in and out of favour during periods of economic and political stability.
We will look to focus on your overarching investment goals to ensure that we maximise your investment returns whilst continuing to invest in companies that work hard to manage their legacy and impact on the world.
There’s a great deal to consider when assessing ESG investment opportunities. Our clients tell us that taking professional independent financial advice from Tees, helps them to invest their money more in line with their core values and beliefs.
If you would like to find out more about our services, either speak to your Tees financial adviser directly, call our team on 0800 013 1165, or fill out our enquiry form and we’ll be in touch.
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Chat to the Author, James Appleby
Managing Director at Tees Wealth, Bishop's Stortford officeMeet James